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Wayne L. Klein, PhD

Neuropsychological Assessment of Children & Adults; Couples & Individual Psychotherapy Offices in Franklin, MA & Spaulding Center for Children, Sandwich, MA
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Animal Intelligence

The elephant brain ranges between 3,600 - 5,400 grams, the largest of any land mammal. While most of this massive brain is devoted to controlling the massive body, such a large brain also supports other functions. Elephants have been observed to use tools and have demonstrated self-recognition in a mirror. There are also indications that they may be aware of death. Some are good artists.

Birds, like mammals, vary dramatically in intelligence. Some birds make tools, may understand abstract concepts, pluck the guitar, and some dance to music.
Some crows have learned to crack nuts that were once inaccessible due to their hard shells. Other crows use tools to catch grubs, similar to the way chimps catch termites with a stick. They can not only use a hooked tool to extend their reach, but can actually bend a wire to make a hook for use as a tool.

Alex the Parrot, who was studied by Irene Pepperberg, PhD appears to have demonstrated the understanding of language.